Advocates and service providers work most effectively when equipped with clear, comprehensive analysis of relevant policies and developments in the field. To meet this need, MPact engages in knowledge translation and knowledge production, generating numerous publications on issues that impact the sexual health and human rights of men who have sex with men at regional and global levels.
Check out additional publications in the research section of our website.
Community Recovery Plan
As the world took combined actions to fight the aftermath of COVID19, there was no serious and thought-out efforts from local governments to address the needs of the most vulnerable. UN independent expert on SOGI (Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity) reported that access to healthcare for LGBTIQ+ participants and people living with HIV has reduced up to 23% due to the COVID19 pandemic. In many cases, designated health facilities for GBMSM and PLHIV (people living with HIV) were assigned for COVID19 support. Even vaccination rates among these communities, were recorded low. All this led to adverse effects on the mental health of GBMSM communities and brought immense negative impact on their psychosocial wellbeing. Several services have reported increased demand for psychosocial assistance and four times more suicidal tendencies among the LGBTIQ+ people during the pandemic.
CDC and the Key Population Investment Fund (KPIF)
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS relief, colloquially known as PEPFAR, is one of the United States’ most effective tools in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. To date, PEPFAR remains the largest commitment by any nation to address a specific disease in history. PEPFAR houses multiple initiatives, including the Key Population Investment Fund (KPIF), which was an initiative specifically designed to increase access for various key populations (KPs).
KPIF and Community Engagement Grants
In 2016, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) launched a $100 million initiative – the Key Population Investment Fund (KPIF) – to target the unaddressed HIV- related needs of key populations (KPs) who are disproportionately affected by HIV. The four KPs targeted were gay and bisexual men, transgender people, sex workers, and people who use drugs.
Community-Led Monitoring Fact Sheet 2021.
Community-Led Monitoring (CLM) is one of the latest strategies to receive support from the Global Fund, PEPFAR, UNAIDS, and other crucial stakeholders to put communities in the driving seat to monitor advocates for quality of health service delivery. Local communities can hold service providers to account by collecting and utilizing information on service provision and how local situations impact them. This factsheet describes the CLM, who can implement, how-to resources, and other tools. Check it out!
The Success And Challenges Of GF – C19RM In Meeting The Needs Of Key Populations.
Effective, meaningful engagement of key populations and inclusion of community pri- orities and efforts within a country’s Global Fund COVID-19 Response Mechanism (C19RM) is critical to mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on HIV and TB responses. Did the Global Fund meet the needs and expectations of Key Populations in their response to COVID-19? Read our community-led report on the successes and challenges of the C19RM program.
Promoting the Health and Rights of Gay Men Worldwide: A Handbook for All Health Professionals
This newly released guide will help build cultural and clinical competency among healthcare providers serving gay communities. Developed in partnership with local LGBTI organizations and the Center for Public Health and Human Rights (CPHHR) at Johns Hopkins University, the handbook draws from emerging research and clinical guidance on the health of gay men. + FILL OUT THIS FORM TO DOWNLOAD THE PDF
Our Story: Zimbabwe – Part One In A Series Sharing Stories of Change from MPact’s Bridging the Gaps Program
This change story features the work of Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe (GALZ), MPact’s Bridging the Gaps partner in Zimbabwe since 2012. It highlights the critical role played by BTG in contributing to increased recognition of gay and bisexual men and the broader LGBTI community by the Ministry of Health in Zimbabwe through specifically earmarked funding and issuance of normative guidance for key populations at the national level.
Our Story: Indonesia + Vietnam – Part Two In A Series Sharing Stories of Change from MPact’s Bridging the Gaps Program
This change story features the work of G-Link and Lighthouse in Vietnam, as well as the work of Inti Muda (formerly Focus Muda) and GWL-INA in Indonesia. It highlights the critical role played by Bridging the Gaps in advancing the work of these community-based organizations to sensitize healthcare providers, research sexual and reproductive health, innovate technologies for the LGBTI community, knowledge-share, and expand access to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment in the western pacific region.
Our Story: Ukraine – Part Three In A Series Sharing Stories of Change from MPact’s Bridging the Gaps Program
This change story features the work of Alliance Global, MPact’s Bridging the Gaps partners in Ukraine. Alliance Global has also been at the forefront of providing PrEP to gay and bisexual men in Ukraine. With support from BTG and MPact, Alliance Global provides combination HIV prevention and testing and treatment for HIV, Hepatitis C, and other STIs.
Roadmap for Key Populations Advocates Navigating the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria
June 2021 | English | Français
The brief seeks provide an overall snapshot of how the Global Fund mechanism works, to help key populations navigate the pathway to securing funding for their work. It offers toolkits, policy briefs, trainings and other materials that explain different steps of that process in more detail. It also includes case study examples of successful key population programs supported by the Global Fund, in hopes that they inspire creativity, innovation and persistence in driving this work forward.
Improving the PrEP Continuum of Care of Care Among Key Populations in Sub-Saharan Africa
March 2021 | English | Français
The brief seeks to provide a framework for effective engagement of key populations (KP) in the development of technical briefs that can be applied on a global scale. More importantly, it seeks to provide an update on HIV and PrEP Continuum of Care in Sub-Saharan Africa, share current strategies to address barriers, share information on facilitators to improve outcomes in the PrEP continuum of care, and present community-led recommendations to advance HIV prevention and care in the region.
This publication gives examples and good practices to inspire activists and organizations to engage and increase the visibility of LGBTI people in the context of the Agenda 2030. This resource was compiled on the basis of positive examples of civil society engagement in six countries in 2019 and 2020, namely Brazil, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Malaysia, and North Macedonia.
This new M&E toolkit is for LGBTIQ-led community-based organizations that are advocating for high quality, accessible, and rights-based sexual health programs, practices, and policies to better serve LGBTIQ people. Available in English & French, the toolkit provides support to staff in these organizations as they consider whether and how to evaluate their work. We provide information on useful techniques for those who are new to monitoring and evaluating advocacy activities.
This technical brief is intended for key population advocates and key population-led organizations who engage with PEPFAR mechanisms at the country and regional levels. The brief is a useful resource that will help these stakeholders to better understand PEPFAR’s financial and policy-related commitments. It will help them successfully engage with PEPFAR’s annual planning processes, thus helping KP communities successfully meet their HIV needs.
This report presents global and country-level research findings from the Global Men’s Health and Rights study with our Action for Access! partners in Kenya & Viet Nam. Overall, findings indicate that gay and bisexual men continue to have poor access to the most essential HIV prevention services. Criminalization of sex between men at a country level is an example of the structural violence that impedes health services access for gay and bisexual men.
Fast-Track or Off Track: How Insufficient Funding for Key Populations Jeopardizes Ending AIDS by 2030
This report, which was introduced at the HIV2020 Conference, highlights that funding for marginalized communities is “way off track”, with only 2% of funding for HIV programs targeting key populations. The research was commissioned by Aidsfonds and supported by key population programs Bridging the Gaps and PITCH.
Understanding Current Normative Guidance for Comprehensive HIV & STI Prevention and Treatment for Key Populations
October 2020 | English | Français
This technical brief seeks to demystify normative guidance, share current implementation tools, and highlight recommendations on using normative guidance to design and implement effective HIV and STI services and advocacy. It also provides examples of the successful use of normative guidance by key population communities from different regions.
Reducing Stigma and Discrimination in Access to HIV Health Care for Gay and Bisexual Men and Transgender Women Using Mystery Patients in Cameroon and Zimbabwe: A Case Study
This case study highlights two examples of a community-led monitoring approach using mystery patients to document stigma and discrimination in the provision of health care. The process and outcomes of using these strategies in Cameroon and Zimbabwe are described. In each country, over a period of 10-12 months, gay and bisexual men and transgender women documented their experiences at select health care facilities using standardized tools.
7 Case Studies Featuring HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiatives Led by Gay Men
July 2020 | English | Español | Français |
The case studies offered here are intended as an instructional tool for anyone interested in leading new or strengthening existing PrEP efforts. It will especially be beneficial to advocates, community-based organizations, healthcare providers, and policymakers working in HIV prevention, sexual health, or human rights.
Rough Guide to Influencing and Monitoring PEPFAR Country Programs
January 2020 | English | Français |
An activist’s tool for watchdogging the world’s largest source of funding for the global HIV response where it matters most. This year’s guide includes a timeline of important steps in the FY 2020 COP process; a brief orientation to diving into PEPFAR program data; key steps to influencing PEPFAR country plans; and other top tips and answers to frequently asked questions.
What is a Community Led Organization?
Community-led organizations are led by the people who they serve and are primarily accountable to them. In the AIDS response, this includes organizations by and for people living with HIV or tuberculosis and organizations by and for people affected by HIV, including women, young people, gay men and other men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, prisoners, sex workers and transgender people.
Attacks on Immigrant Communities and Proposed Changes to Public Charge Rules
This new technical brief from our Fijate Bien program outlines how public policy has shifted for immigrant communities in the United States and provides a list of recommendations for policy makers, advocates, health workers as well as communities. Within this brief, MPact and its partners called on policy makers, funding partners, and allies to denounce anti-immigrant initiatives and laws, including changes to Public Charge rules.
US National Strategy Update Implications for Latinx Gay and Bisexual Men
The Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy (OHAIDP), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at HHS, is currently entertaining community input on the next update to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). This Technical Brief summarizes the NHAS process thus far, makes recommendations on indicator targets and highlights the impact on Latinx gay and bisexual men.
Technical Brief – Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 16 for All: Linking HIV, Key Populations, and Human Rights June 2019 How are key populations, HIV, and human rights interlinked with Sustainable Development Goal 16 on peace and justice? Released prior to the thematic review of Goal 16 on peace and justice at the 2019 High Level Political Forum, this brief analyzes five targets within Goal 16 and explains how progress in these areas is essential to ending HIV, to protecting and respecting human rights, and to achieving the ambitious 2030 Agenda.
Technical Brief – To Achieve Sustainable Development Goal 17, Invest in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria
As the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria aims to mobilize at least US$14 billion for its Sixth Replenishment this year, government leaders are simultaneously reviewing how to best partner to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This brief outlines the ways that replenishment of the Global Fund can serve as a model for achieving SDG 17, Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development, and the broader call for Universal Health Coverage and achieving the 2030 Agenda.
Using Voluntary National Reviews to Keep HIV on the Global Health and Development Agenda
This report written in collaboration with the Free Space Process collaborative urges States to more robustly integrate HIV and the needs of key populations into reporting via the Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) on Sustainable Development Goal implementation.
Participatory Praxis as an Imperative for Health-Related Stigma Research
Participatory praxis is increasingly valued for the reliability, validity, and relevance of research results that it fosters. Participatory methods become an imperative in health-related stigma research, where the constitutive elements of stigma, healthcare settings, and research each operate on hierarchies that push those with less social power to the margins.
The Impact of Stigma and Discrimination on Key Populations and Their Families
November 2018 | English | Español | Français |
Societal stigma and punitive legal frameworks often severely impede key populations’ rights to raise families free from interference and discrimination. The experiences of key population groups (gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) are diverse, and are informed by varying levels of criminalisation, stigma and discrimination, and individual factors such as socioeconomic status, gender, race, and health status. This paper developed in collaboration with NSWP and INPUD explores these challenges, and provides recommendations for policymakers.
Download the Policy Brief
Download the Community Guide
The Homophobia and Transphobia Experienced by LGBT Sex Workers
November 2018 | EN | ES | FR | RU | CN |
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience targeted homophobia and transphobia at every level – including legal, political and social. For sex workers who are LGBT, discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity adds to and intensifies the discrimination they experience as sex workers. This Briefing Paper written in collaboration with NSWP documents the stigma and discrimination experienced by LGBT sex workers and highlights differences in their experiences when compared with other members of their respective communities.
Download the Policy Brief
Download the Community Guide
Focus on key populations in national HIV strategic plans in the African region
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines key populations as populations who are at higher risk for HIV irrespective of the epidemic type or local context and who face social and legal challenges that increase their vulnerability. They include sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, people who inject drugs, and people in prison and other closed settings. In addition to experiencing elevated HIV risk and burden and facing legal and social issues, these populations historically have not received adequate priority in the response to the HIV epidemic, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics.
Out With It: HIV and Other Sexual Health Considerations for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men
Developed in collaboration with UNDP, UNFPA, and The World Health Organization (WHO) this technical brief gives recommendations for making services, laws, and funding accesible to young gay and bisexual men.
Unity in Diversity: A Case Study on the Achievements, Good Practices and Lessons Learned from the Consortium of MSM and Transgender Networks
This case describes the Consortium of MSM and Transgender Networks’ best practices and lessons learned. It is framed around the Consortium’s eight key achievements in the areas HIV, sexual health and human rights.
Getting on Track in Agenda 2030: HIV in Voluntary National Reviews of Sustainable Development Implementation
Released ahead of regional meetings commencing this month in preparation of the annual High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, this report calls upon UN agencies, Member States, and members of civil society to collaboratively ensure HIV-related data is included in the framework of Agenda 2030.
Population Size Estimation of Gay and Bisexual Men and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Social Media-Based Platforms
In order to reliably estimate the proportion of the male population who do not identify as heterosexual, this study compares UNAIDS estimates (where available) to estimates of members of Hornet, a social app geared towards gay men, and Facebook members with specific interests associated with gay and bisexual men and men who have sex with men in 13 countries across five continents.
Reconsidering Primary Prevention: New Steps Forward in the Global Response
September 2017 | English | Español | Français |
The world needs a new phase in the evolution of the HIV response—one that reinvigorates prevention by seamlessly combining the efficacy of upstream, midstream, and downstream interventions with the powerful effectiveness of community action. Lead by MSMGF in conjunction with global key population networks GATE, IRGT, GNP+, NSWP, ICW, and INPUD, the paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced strategy that combines the efficacy of new biomedical interventions with the guidance and leadership of communities that continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV.
Agenda 2030 for LGBTI Health & Well-Being
Released ahead of the 2017 UN High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, this paper calls on countries to recognize and address the impact of stigma, discrimination, violence, and criminalization on health. In collaboration with OutRight Action International and The Global Platform to Fast Track the Human Rights and HIV Responses with Gay and Bisexual Men, MSMGF argues for a global health and development approach that is inclusive of LGBTI people.
Getting on the Fast Track: Advocacy Priorities for the Global HIV and HUman Rights Responses with Gay & Bisexual Men
In 2015, UNAIDS introduced a set of targets to accelerate the global response to HIV. Although this has resulted in HIV incidence remaining flat or beginning to decrease in a few select cities, HIV remains unabated among gay and bisexual men in many parts of the world. This paper carefully details next steps for coordinated action on reaching global targets in the HIV epidemic.
Will the Global HIV Response Fail?
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups.
Youth Reference Group Action Plan 2015-2017
This document outlines the MSMGF Youth Reference Group’s Action Plan to support the health and human rights of young MSM (YMSM) over the next three years.
Global Action with Local Impact: Why Advocacy Matters
This publication explores the role of global-level advocacy in addressing HIV among people living with HIV, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and LGBT people.
MSM in Sub-Saharan Africa: Health, Access, & HIV
This policy brief examines access to basic HIV services among MSM in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the roles of stigma, violence, and community engagement in impacting levels of access among MSM in the region. (Erratum)
Access Challenges for HIV Treatment: People Living with HIV and Key Populations in Middle-Income Countries
This policy brief examines challenges in accessing affordable HIV treatment for people living with HIV and key populations, providing recommendations for increasing access in middle-income countries.
Community Systems Strengthening and Key Populations
This publication details the strengths and weaknesses of community systems strengthening (CSS) for addressing HIV among key populations, providing recommendations for maximizing its impact.
Coverage of Key Populations at the 2012 International AIDS Conference
This publication features a systematic analysis of the number, quality, and geographic coverage of abstracts on key populations at the 2012 International AIDS Conference (IAC).
Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: Health, Access, & HIV
This policy brief examines housing, violence, and other HIV risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) globally using data from the 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights survey (2012 GMHR).
Fact Sheet: 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights Survey
This fact sheet presents findings from the MSMGF’s recent report, “Access to HIV Prevention and Treatment for MSM,” featuring information on access to HIV services among MSM globally.
(Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Russian)
Compendium of Technical Bulletins on HIV Prevention and Treatment for MSM
This compendium includes 12 technical bulletins that provide in-depth explanations of the latest intervention strategies in the field of HIV prevention and treatment for MSM, as well as detailed information about diagnostic technology and HIV coinfection with tuberculosis and viral hepatitis.
(Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Russian)
Community Update for MSM Advocates: PEPFAR Blueprint: Creating an AIDS-Free Generation: What does it mean for MSM?
This community update highlights aspects of the new PEPFAR Blueprint relevant to MSM advocates and service providers, as well as opportunities to use the Blueprint to support local MSM programming.
Access to HIV Prevention and Treatment for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from the 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights Study (GMHR)
This publication reports the main findings from the 2012 GHMR global online survey and regional focus groups conducted with MSM in Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa.
MSM & HIV Policy Dashboard
A quick reference guide for HIV prevalence among MSM; UNGASS indicators relevant to MSM reported in 2008 and 2010; criminalization and legal environment for MSM; and HIV investments targeting MSM in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.
Community Update for MSM Advocates: Changes at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
This community update highlights the major developments at the Global Fund relevant to HIV advocates dedicated to advancing the health and human rights of MSM, including new mechanisms for civil society engagement and next steps for continued advocacy.
The Robert Carr Doctrine
The product of a collaboration between global networks of gay men, people who use drugs, sex workers, transgender people, and people living with HIV, the Carr Doctrine calls on all stakeholders to rethink the global response to AIDS, urging actors to recognize that HIV is not just a public health issue, but rather a symptom of underlying societal inequities and injustices.
Missing Voices from the Field: A Selection of MSM & Transgender Abstracts Rejected from the 2012 International AIDS Conference
“Missing Voices” features over 100 abstracts on gay men, other MSM, and transgender people that were rejected and therefore omitted from the 2012 International AIDS Conference, highlighting important new and previously unseen data from around the world.
Top 10 in 2011: Key Global Policy Developments Concerning MSM & HIV
The MSMGF’s report highlighting the top ten policy developments of 2011. Entitled, “Top 10 in 2011: Key Global Policy Developments Concerning MSM & HIV,” the document details the successes and failures of the past year in an effort to help chart a course forward.
HIV Prevention Report Cards for Men Who Have Sex with Men
Developed in collaboration with the International Planned Parenthood Foundation (IPPF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), each report card summarizes current HIV prevention strategies and services for MSM and transgender people.
Drug Chart for HIV Treatment
To address the lack of treatment information tailored to the needs of MSM available in different languages, we have developed a drug chart that includes all approved and generic drugs for the treatment of HIV with dosing and side effects information.
(Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish)
An analysis of major HIV donor investments targeting men who have sex with men and transgender people in low- and middle-income countries
Commissioned by the Global Fund, this report examines global investments in HIV programming for MSM and transgender people.
Access to HIV Prevention Services and Attitudes about Emerging Strategies: A Global Survey of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and their Health Care Providers
This report presents the results of the MSMGF’s 2010 Global Men’s Health and Rights survey, focused on prevention access, homophobia and knowledge of emerging technologies like PrEP.
(Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish)
Engaging with Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Clinical Setting: A Primer for Physicians, Nurses and Other Health Care Providers
This primer aims to improve the standard of clinical care for MSM by providing basic knowledge about homosexuality and MSM health needs, as well as offering a set of principles for effective engagement of MSM in a healthcare setting.
(English, French, Russian, Spanish)
Coverage of Four Key Populations at the 2010 International AIDS Conference
This report details the MSMGF’s audit of all program content at the 2010 International AIDS Conference, revealing the percentage of conference sessions devoted to MSM, transgender people, sex workers and people who use drugs.
Sense is the MSMGF’s multilingual online publication for MSM living with HIV. With contributions from gay men and other MSM around the world, Sense features personal stories about living with HIV in four different languages.
(English, Spanish, French, Portuguese)
A collaboration with APLA, War Diaries features poetry, memoir, critical essays, and original artwork by and about black gay and bisexual men. Edited by Tisa Bryant and Ernest Hardy.
Top Ten Key Global Policy Developments in 2010: Reflections from the Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF)
Focusing on issues concerning MSM, HIV and human rights at the global level, the MSMGF has developed a list of the 10 most significant policy issues and events of the past year.
MSMGF Note on the 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on AIDS
To help clarify the process and facilitate civil society participation, the MSMGF has put together a brief on various processes leading up to the 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on AIDS. This note also contains top-line messaging concerning the AIDS epidemic among MSM with links to helpful resources and key documents.
(English, French, Spanish)
In Our Own Words – Preferences, Values and Perspectives on HIV Prevention and Treatment: A Civil Society Consultation with MSM & Transgender People
The WHO commissioned the MSMGF to conduct a series of interviews with MSM and transgender people around the world regarding experiences and perspectives on prevention and treatment for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. This report is based on open-ended interviews with respondents from 27 different countries throughout Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Latin America, North America and Western Europe.
Advancing the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Human Rights of Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV
The product of a collaboration with the Global Network of People Living with HIV (GNP+), this policy brief provides an examination of issues linked to the sexual and reproductive health of MSM living with HIV, including recommendations for advancing the sexual health and rights of MSM living with HIV.
(English, French, Russian, Spanish)
Lessons from the Front Lines: Effective Community-Led Responses to HIV and AIDS Among MSM and Transgender Populations
This report provides organizational profiles that were developed on the basis of interviews conducted with key field informants from select community-based organizations are presented along with a discussion of major themes that define their successes and challenges.
(English, French, Russian, Spanish)
HIV Prevention with MSM: Balancing Evidence with Rights-based Principles of Practice
This policy brief challenges the silence at the global level about the disproportionate impact that HIV and AIDS have on MSM, and calls for ethically implemented and methodologically sound surveillance, along with epidemiologic and social science research that could sensitively inform HIV prevention and advocacy responses around the world.
(English, French, Russian, Spanish)
Social Discrimination Against Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM)
This policy brief provides an overview of social discrimination as it relates to MSM and HIV, and includes recommendations for concerted action and policy development guided by a human rights framework.
(English, French, Russian, Spanish)
Reaching MSM in the Global HIV and AIDS Epidemic
This policy brief provides an introduction to HIV among gay men and other MSM and identifies key strategic areas that are essential to turning the tide of the epidemic.
(Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish)