Research on the legal grounds and the political arguments for inclusive EU legislation against bias violence and hatred

Published: October 17, 2011

Table of Contents


1. Overall legal framework
1.1. The Court of Justice
1.2. Legal eff ect
1.3 Practice to date after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon
1.4. Framework Decision on racism and xenophobia
2. Human rights issues
3. Competence issues
4. Non-participation of some Member States
4.1. Enhanced cooperation
4.2. Specifi c opt-outs
5. Council of Europe measures
6. Possible political recommendations

Annex I: Relevant EU decision-making processes
Annex II: Flow charts on decision-making
Annex III: Draft Directive on bias/hate crimes

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