The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who do not inject drugs in Asia remains unknown.
The incidence and risk factors for incident HCV infection among HIV-infected MSM at a large HIV clinic in Tokyo were elucidated. Poisson regression compared the incidence of HCV seroconversion at different observation periods.
Of 753 HIV-1 infected MSM patients negative for HCV antibody (HCVAb) at baseline and available follow-up HCVAb test, 21 patients (2.8%) seroconverted to HCVAb-positive over 2,246 person-years (PY), for an incidence of 9.35/1,000 PY. The incidence increased over time from 0/1,000 PY in 2005 to 2006, 3.0/1,000 PY in 2007 to 2008, 7.7/1,000 PY in 2009 to 2010, and 24.9/1,000 PY in 2011 to 2012 (p=0.012). Of 21 incident cases, only 4 (21%) were injection drug users, and sensitivity analysis that excluded injection drug users yielded similar findings. Multivariate analysis identified illicit drug use to be an independent risk for HCV infection (HR=3.006; 95%CI, 1.092-8.275; p=0.033).
Incident HCV infection is increasing among HIV-1-infected MSM non-injection drug users at resource-rich setting in Asia. Illicit drug use is an independent risk factor for incident HCV infection in this population.
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