Disparities in cancer burden between specific populations are widely acknowledged, including differences associated with sexual orientation. We searched PubMed for articles about cancer in men who have sex with men. Of the 410 publications that we identified, 47 reports were eligible for inclusion and review. Most addressed issues of cancer prevention, followed by diagnosis, survivorship, detection, and cancer treatment. Disparities exist mainly in the prevalence of viruses linked to cancers. Knowledge about sexual orientation and cancer is skewed towards infection-related cancers, so information about the association between sexual orientation and other cancers, and social and cultural causes for disparities in cancer, is less available. Men who have sex with men are still a largely overlooked minority group in this respect. Future research should examine the effects of sexual orientation on cancer, from prevention to survivorship.
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