Recent evidence from several sources suggest that Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)1 are at marked risk for HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Research among MSM in LMIC has been limited by the
criminalization, discrimination and social stigmatization of their behaviors, safety considerations for study participants, the hidden nature of this population, and lack of targeted funding. Available evidence suggests that structural risks such as social, economic, political, or legal factors—are likely as important as individual-level risk factors in shaping HIV risks and HIV/AIDS treatment and care options for these men. These same factors may influence how HIV epidemics in MSM affect wider populations. Services and resources for populations of MSM remain markedly low in many settings. They have limited coverage and access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care services with some estimates suggesting that fewer than 1in 10 MSM worldwide have access to the most basic package of preventive interventions.
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