MSM, STDs and HIV: What Are We Missing?

Published: April 27, 2011

I often reflect on how much goes on in the STD world that needs to be hollered from the proverbial rooftops.  Recently, my friend and NCSD Board Member, Susan Philip, who directs the STD program in San Francisco, has been helping me understand the import of having more frank and open conversations about the unique challenges that men who have sex with men (MSM) face in protecting their sexual health.

Across the United States and worldwide, MSM continue to be a group disproportionately affected by STDs and HIV, but we still need better data and better tools to guide prevention efforts.  This is particularly true for STDs.
For example, we have had a large national emphasis on syphilis elimination since 1999 and have more recently worked to address both issues of co-infection in HIV-infected persons and also the increased risk of HIV infection in HIV-uninfected patients with syphilis.
And while much deserved attention is paid to syphilis in this regard, we should not forget that chlamydia and gonorrhea are much more common STDs, although we are less able to measure their impact on the health of MSM.  Patients who are diagnosed with infectious syphilis are typically interviewed by local or state health department staff (individuals are always given the option to decline answering some or all of these questions), and this information includes the numbers and gender of partners they have had, where they met them and the types of sex they had with partners.  This information helps local STD programs, as well as the CDC and other partners in sexual health, better understand who is at risk for syphilis, and most importantly, direct prevention resources more effectively.

However, obtaining these data are possible because there are specific federal funds to support syphilis control and prevention efforts, and because even in areas with high syphilis morbidity, the case counts are much lower than for gonorrhea or chlamydia.  Yet, in many other places across the country, it is often not feasible to interview all of the individuals diagnosed with gonorrhea and chlamydia.  Because we lack this type of interview information about partners, we don’t reliably know which individuals with gonorrhea and chlamydia are MSM, and therefore cannot assess the impact of these STDs on health.  Recognizing that we cannot begin to address sexual health disparities in MSM without good data, several states and cities including California are changing reporting requirements to include gender of sex partners when providers or laboratories report new cases of STDs to health officials.
In areas where gender of sex partners is collected routinely, STD disparities are commonly found.  In San Francisco in 2010, an estimated 1 in 100 MSM was infected with early syphilis, but diagnoses of chlamydia or gonorrhea were twice as common as syphilis.  Furthermore, gonorrhea rates were 18 times higher in MSM than in heterosexual men.  For chlamydia, they were 8 times higher.

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