An HIV incidence estimation was performed among men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users (DUs), sex workers (SWs), and pregnant women (PW) from Argentina. Volunteers older than 18 years old without a previous HIV-positive diagnosis were included. HIV-positive samples were analyzed by the Serological Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) to estimate incidence. By partial RT-PCR and sequencing of the HIV pol gene, an HIV subtype and resistance profile were determined. A total of 12,192 volunteers were recruited from October 2006 to September 2008. A higher HIV prevalence was detected among trans SWs (33.9%, 38/112), male SWs (10.8%, 12/111), and MSM 10.4% (161/1549). HIV incidence estimates by STARHS was also higher on trans SWs (11.31 per 100 person-years), male SWs (6.06 per 100 person-years), and MSM (6.36 per 100 person-years). Antiretroviral primary resistant mutations were detected in 8.4% of the study group, with a higher frequency in female DUs (33.3%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 124 (57.9%) samples were subtype B, 84 (39.3%) intersubtype BF recombinants, 5 (2.3%) subtype C, and 1 (0.5%) subtype F in the pol region. Subtype B was most commonly found in MSM and male SWs whereas the intersubtype BF recombinant was more prevalent in female DUs, female SWs, and PW. Given the high HIV prevalence and incidence found in most of these groups, monitoring the continuing spread of the HIV epidemic is essential for determining public health priorities, assessing the impact of interventions, and estimating current and future health care needs.
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